Noise pollution is a process that affects the environment, is produced by the presence of a physical agent called NOISE, in higher intensities than allowed normally and produces different effects on both humans and animals and materials.
Noise is unwanted sound annoying, especially abundant the urban environment or large areas of human activities.
The causes of noise in the community are many: air and ground transportation, construction work, industrial and commercial activities, recreation, mechanical and electrical equipment, pets, household noises like those produced by radio and television.
The noise has a number of features that unlike other air pollutants and impede the implementation of control and monitoring.
These features may be mentioned:
· Very little energy is required to produce it. The acoustic energy involved in generating high levels of noise is negligible.
· It is perceived by one sense. Unlike other pollutants, noise is perceived only through the sense of hearing, and that its spread is airborne. For example a polluted river could be detected through vision (visual impact), the taste, smell and even touch.
· No residue. Once the noise source fails, the noise disappears. This forces quantify their magnitude at the same time it occurs.
Compared with other pollutants, control of environmental noise is limited by lack of knowledge of its effects on humans, the limited information on the dose-response relationship and the lack of defined criteria.
Environmental legislation has provisions for local and provincial level.
In our city, the issue is addressed by Ordinance No. 7604/93: Noise nuisance to the neighborhood, which states:
“Cause is prohibited to produce or encourage unnecessary or excessive noises which spread by air or solid way affect or are able to affect the public, whether in public or private environments, whatever the jurisdiction on these runs and the act, fact or activity in question “
This Ordinance sets guidelines spare sound measurement based IRAM 4062.